What is a System Administrator? and how to become one.

Emiliano Pardo Saguier August 4, 2022
- 11 min read

Are you curious about what a system administrator does? Maybe you want to become one yourself. This blog will guide you through everything you need to know. From responsibilities to the systems they manage, we've got you covered.

What is a System Administrator?

Definition and key responsibilities: The system administrator role, or sysadmin, involves managing and maintaining an organization’s computer systems. They ensure that these systems run smoothly without interruptions. Key responsibilities include:

  • Installing and configuring software and hardware: This includes operating systems and application software.

  • Managing user accounts and permissions: Ensuring only authorized users have access.

  • Monitoring system performance: Detecting and resolving issues before they impact users.

  • Implementing security measures: Protecting against hacking and data breaches.

Overview of systems managed: Sysadmins handle different operating systems based on the needs of their organization. Common systems include:

  • Windows: Widely used in businesses for its user-friendly interface.

  • Linux: Preferred for servers due to its stability and security.

  • Mac: Often used in creative industries like design and video production.

Importance in an organizational IT structure: Sysadmins are crucial for the smooth operation of any organization. Without them, systems could fail, leading to loss of productivity and revenue. They ensure that all IT resources are available and functioning. They also:

Daily tasks and routines: Sysadmins have varied daily tasks that keep them busy. A typical day might include:

  1. Checking system performance logs: Identifying and fixing issues.

  2. Updating software: Installing patches to improve security and functionality.

  3. Managing backups: Ensuring data is safely stored and can be retrieved.

  4. Responding to support tickets: Helping users with technical problems.

  5. Configuring new hardware: Setting up servers, workstations, and network devices.

Sysadmins play a vital role in maintaining the infrastructure that keeps businesses running smoothly. Their work behind the scenes ensures that employees can focus on their tasks without worrying about technical issues.

Why Become a System Administrator?

Competitive salaries and benefits: One of the main reasons to pursue a systems administrator position is the attractive pay. Sysadmins often receive competitive salaries due to the expertise and responsibility their role demands. According to sources, the average salary for a sysadmin in the United States is around $80,000 per year. Additionally, many companies offer great benefits, including health insurance, retirement plans, and paid time off.

System Administrator Salary US

Job stability and demand in various industries: In today’s digital age, almost every industry needs system administrators. From healthcare and finance to education and technology, sysadmins are essential. This broad demand offers job stability. Companies depend on their IT infrastructure to function, making sysadmins indispensable. During economic downturns, this role remains critical, ensuring continuous employment.

Opportunities for career advancement: The field of system administration offers many paths for growth:

  • Senior System Administrator: With experience, you can move into senior roles, handling more complex systems.

  • Network Administrator: Specialize in managing and troubleshooting network issues.

  • IT Manager: Oversee entire IT departments, coordinating between different teams.

  • Cloud Architect: Focus on designing and managing cloud-based solutions.

Satisfaction from solving complex technical issues: If you enjoy problem-solving, this job offers immense satisfaction. Sysadmins face various challenges daily, from troubleshooting network problems to securing systems against cyber threats. Successfully resolving these issues can be very rewarding. Knowing that your work keeps the organization running smoothly provides a strong sense of accomplishment.

Choosing to become a systems administrator can lead to a fulfilling career with numerous benefits. The role offers competitive pay, job security, advancement opportunities, and the satisfaction of overcoming technical challenges.

How to Become a System Administrator

What are the Educational Requirements? (Including a Bachelor's Degree)

Relevant degrees: To become a system administrator, a strong educational background is important. Most sysadmins have degrees in Computer Science or Information Technology (IT). These programs cover essential topics like programming, networking, and database management, providing a solid foundation for the role. Degree programs with an emphasis on hardware, computer networks, and system administration are also highly regarded.

Importance of certifications: Beyond degrees, certifications play a crucial role in a sysadmin’s career. Here are some key certifications:

  1. CompTIA A+: This certification covers basic IT knowledge, including hardware, software, and networking.

  2. CompTIA Network+: Focuses on networking concepts and troubleshooting.

  3. Microsoft Certified: Azure Administrator Associate: Validates skills in managing Azure environments.

  4. Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA): Demonstrates expertise in networking fundamentals.

Certifications show employers that you have up-to-date skills and a commitment to your profession. They can also give you an edge in the job market. Understanding the system administrator's responsibilities, such as checking on server health and monitoring critical processes, is essential for obtaining these certifications.

What Experience is Needed?

Entry-level IT roles: Starting in entry-level IT positions helps you gain the necessary experience. Common roles include:

  • Help Desk Technician: Provides technical support to end-users.

  • Technical Support Specialist: Troubleshoots and resolves various IT issues.

  • Junior System Administrator: Assists senior sysadmins with day-to-day tasks, including managing computer hardware such as desktops and servers.

These roles build your understanding of IT systems and customer service skills.

Importance of internships and hands-on experience: Practical experience is vital. Internships offer opportunities to work alongside experienced professionals and tackle real-world problems. Additionally, setting up a home lab can help you experiment and learn:

  • Home Lab: Create a network at home to practice configuring servers, routers, and other devices.

  • Volunteer Opportunities: Offer IT support to local non-profits or community groups.

Hands-on experience is invaluable; it helps you apply theoretical knowledge and develop problem-solving skills.

Becoming a system administrator involves a blend of education, certifications, and practical experience. Degrees in relevant fields and key certifications pave the way, while entry-level roles and internships provide the hands-on knowledge needed to excel.

How to Gain Practical Experience as a System Administrator

Entry-level IT Jobs

Starting with entry-level IT jobs is one of the best ways to gain practical experience. These positions allow you to understand the basics of IT support and system management, including gaining familiarity with Linux operating systems:

  • Help Desk Technician: Work on resolving user issues, answer technical questions, and help with software installations. This role teaches you how to troubleshoot and improves your customer service skills.

  • Technical Support Specialist: Handle more complex problems than a help desk technician, often involving hardware issues, network problems, and more advanced software troubleshooting. This position provides a deeper understanding of IT systems. Network administrators, who focus on network-related tasks and equipment, often start in such roles to gain foundational experience.

Volunteer Opportunities and Internships

Gaining hands-on experience through internships and volunteer work is invaluable:

  • Internships: Many companies offer internships for aspiring system administrators. These positions let you work alongside experienced professionals, giving you insight into advanced tasks like server management and network configuration. Websites like LinkedIn and Indeed list numerous internship opportunities.

  • Volunteer Opportunities: Offer your IT skills to non-profits, schools, or community centers. This not only helps you gain experience but also builds your resume. You might set up computer labs, maintain networks, or assist with IT projects.

These experiences are crucial for understanding the system administrator role, which involves maintaining servers, networks, and computer systems, managing software updates, and addressing technical issues.

Home Lab Setups for Practice


Setting up a home lab allows you to experiment and learn in a controlled environment:

  • Hardware: Use old computers, routers, and switches to create a network. This setup gives you a playground to test configurations, install operating systems, and troubleshoot computer hardware without fear of causing real-world problems.

  • Virtual Machines: Tools like VirtualBox or VMware allow you to create multiple virtual machines on a single physical machine. Practice setting up different operating systems like Linux, Windows Server, and more.

Participation in Online Forums and Communities

Engaging with online forums and communities is another great way to learn and grow as a systems administrator:

  • Forums: Websites like Reddit and Stack Exchange have active sysadmin communities. Here, you can ask questions, share knowledge, and solve problems collaboratively.

  • Online Courses and Tutorials: Platforms like Coursera, Udemy, and YouTube offer courses and tutorials on various sysadmin topics. These resources can help you stay updated with the latest technologies and best practices.

Key Takeaways:

  • Entry-level jobs: Start with help desk or technical support roles to build foundational knowledge.

  • Internships and volunteering: Gain real-world experience and build your resume.

  • Home labs: Practice in a risk-free environment using old hardware or virtual machines.

  • Online communities: Engage with other sysadmins, ask questions, and learn from their experiences.

Gaining practical experience involves a mix of entry-level jobs, internships, hands-on practice, and community engagement. These steps help you build the skills needed to become a proficient systems administrator.

What Tools and Technologies Do System Administrators Use?

Overview of Popular Tools

System administrators rely on a variety of tools to manage and automate tasks efficiently:

  • Nagios: This monitoring tool helps you keep an eye on network services, host resources, and server performance. It sends alerts when something goes wrong, allowing quick responses to issues.

  • Ansible: An open-source automation tool that simplifies complex tasks like software provisioning, configuration management, and application deployment. It uses simple YAML files to describe automation jobs, making it easy to understand and use.

  • Puppet: Another automation tool focused on managing the configuration of systems. Puppet ensures that the desired state of the system configuration is maintained, automating repetitive tasks and reducing human error.

Importance of Scripting Languages

Knowing scripting languages is crucial for system administrators:

  • Python: Widely used due to its simplicity and readability. Python scripts can automate a variety of tasks such as file manipulation, data analysis, and even web scraping. It’s also powerful for writing custom scripts to manage servers and networks.

  • Bash: The default shell for many Unix-based systems, Bash scripting is essential for automating tasks in the command line. It’s used for writing scripts to manage system operations, automate backups, and handle repetitive tasks.

Use of Monitoring and Security Tools for System Performance

Monitoring and maintaining security are key responsibilities of a system administrator:

  • Monitoring Tools: Tools like Zabbix and Prometheus help in monitoring the health and performance of IT infrastructure. They provide real-time data and alert systems for issues, ensuring that you can maintain uptime and service quality.

  • Security Tools: Wireshark and Snort are examples of tools used for network security. Wireshark allows you to see what’s happening on your network at a microscopic level, while Snort is an intrusion detection system that helps identify potential threats.

Cloud Service Management

As businesses move to the cloud, system administrators must manage these environments:

  • AWS (Amazon Web Services): AWS provides a wide range of cloud services including computing power, storage, and databases. Knowledge of AWS allows you to set up and manage scalable, reliable, and secure cloud environments.

  • Azure: Microsoft’s cloud platform offers similar services to AWS but integrates well with other Microsoft products. Understanding Azure is crucial for managing cloud-based applications and services in organizations that rely on Microsoft technologies.

Key Takeaways:

  • Popular Tools: Nagios, Ansible, and Puppet help automate and monitor IT tasks.

  • Scripting Languages: Python and Bash are essential for writing scripts and automating tasks.

  • Monitoring and Security: Tools like Zabbix, Prometheus, Wireshark, and Snort ensure system health and security.

  • Cloud Services: AWS and Azure are key platforms for managing cloud environments.

A system administrator's toolkit includes automation tools, scripting languages, monitoring and security applications, and cloud service management platforms. These tools and technologies help streamline operations, ensure security, and manage complex IT environments efficiently.

Why is Being a System Administrator Challenging?

Technical Complexities and Troubleshooting

Systems administrators face many technical challenges. They must understand and manage multiple operating systems like Windows, Linux, and Mac. Each operating system has its own set of rules, commands, and quirks. Additionally, they often deal with complex network configurations, server issues, and software bugs. Troubleshooting these problems requires a deep understanding of how systems interact.

High Responsibility for System Uptime and Security

Uptime and security are critical. A system administrator's responsibilities include ensuring that systems are always available and secure. Downtime can cost a company money and reputation. Security breaches can lead to data loss and legal issues. Therefore, system administrators must implement robust security measures, monitor for threats, and respond quickly to incidents. This responsibility can be stressful because the stakes are high.

Continuous Learning and Staying Updated with Technology

Technology evolves rapidly. To keep up, system administrators must continually learn new skills and stay updated on the latest trends. This means reading articles, attending workshops, and sometimes getting new certifications. For example, cloud services like AWS and Azure frequently update their features and best practices. System administrators need to adapt to these changes to stay effective in their roles.

Managing User Issues, User Accounts, and Expectations

User management is another critical challenge. Users often have problems with their devices or software and expect quick resolutions. Sometimes, these issues are simple, but other times they are complex and require significant troubleshooting. Moreover, users may not always understand the technical limitations or requirements, making it hard to manage their expectations. System administrators must communicate clearly and effectively to keep users satisfied while managing their own workload efficiently.

Key Challenges:

  • Technical: Mastering multiple operating systems and troubleshooting complex issues.

  • Responsibility: Ensuring system uptime and security to avoid costly downtime and breaches.

  • Learning: Continuously updating knowledge and skills to keep up with rapidly evolving technology.

  • User Management: Handling user issues and managing expectations while maintaining a high level of service.

System administrators deal with technical complexities, high stakes for uptime and security, the need for constant learning, and user management challenges. These factors make the role demanding but also rewarding for those who enjoy solving problems and staying on the cutting edge of technology.

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